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      二戰日本反坦克炮的研發歷程第一期

      已跟帖 2014-06-26 作者: 來源:

        Today, we have another guest article, this time by Daigensui, who worked previously on getting info for the Japanese branch. She named the article…

        今天博客上又有一位發表文章的嘉賓了,這次是Daigensui。她以前曾經為日系坦克情報收集做出了很大貢獻。她管這篇文章叫……

        Daigensui’s Rescript: Late Coming Early Days Japanese TD

        Daigensui的布告:姍姍來遲的早期日本TD

        譯注:Daigensui為羅馬音,漢字為’大元帥’

        This is Part 1 of the Japanese Tank Destroyer Series, dealing with the origins of tank destroyer development and the first results. Before we look into the beginnings of the pretty meager collection of Japanese tank destroyers, we need to first understand how tank destroyers came about.

        這是日系TD文章的第一部分,是關于TD開發的起源,以及最初的結果的。在我們開始討論日系那本來就不多的TD之前,我們首先需要理解TD究竟是怎么來的。

        The first tank destroyers were basically stopgap solutions, mounting an anti-tank gun on a tracked vehicle and calling it a dedicated anti-tank weapon. The German Panzerjägers, anti-tank guns in an open-topped superstructure on a light tank chassis, were the major starting point for this idea. The existence of heavy French tanks like the Char B1, which were beyond the capabilities of the major anti-tank guns in service, meant that the Germans needed larger guns on mobile platforms. That is how Panzerjäger I and the Marder series came about: putting larger anti-tank guns on tank chassis to give them the mobility to keep up with the rest of the armored forces. It was only as the war went on that with more powerful tanks coming to the battlefield that we have the appearances of case mates on medium/heavy tank chassis armed with powerful guns.

        第一輛TD其實是個臨時解決方案,只是把一桿反坦克炮裝在了一個履帶車上,然后就管它叫‘反坦克專用武器’。德國的Panzerjägers(譯注:英文直譯”armour-hunters” or “tank-hunters”,即“裝甲獵手”或“坦克獵手”,德文中簡寫為Pz.Jg,下同) 們,把一桿反坦克炮裝在了一個輕坦底盤上,上面加裝一個敞篷戰斗室,是這個想法的主要起點。由于法國Char B1等等重坦的出現,現用的主要反坦克炮已經搞不定它們了,也就意味著德國人需要在移動平臺上加裝更大的主炮。這就是Pz.Jg I以及黃鼠狼系列的起源:把更大的反坦克炮裝在坦克底盤上,以給予他們能夠跟上其余的裝甲部隊的機動能力。但是隨著戰爭的進行,越來越強的坦克開始出現在戰場上,才有了把更加強力的主炮安裝在中坦/重坦底盤上的想法。

        Now, considering this background, one has to put onself into the mindset of the Imperial Japanese Army to understand why Japan was never too keen on developing tank destroyers. When your current enemy barely has any armor to speak off, and you have a non-aggression treaty with potential enemy to the north (which you fought before, and realized that your current towed anti-tank guns were adequate for the job), why would you go through the trouble of trying to stick larger guns on your already limited tank chassis? After all, your 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun Type 94 could just about deal with anything in your path, including those Western powers in Southeast Asia with their Universal Carriers, Lanchester Armoured Cars, Carden Loyd Tankette, and Stuarts. Your industrial capacity is already strained to the breaking point with a massive continental war. So, why bother with this tank destroyer nonsense?

        現在要考慮時代背景了,你需要把你的思維方式調整成大日本帝國陸軍(譯注:簡稱日本陸軍或IJA,下同) 那樣才能夠理解為什么日本從來就沒有過特別熱衷于開發TD。當你現在的敵人幾乎沒有什么裝甲與你對抗,而你又與北面的潛在的敵人有著互不侵犯條約(以前你們還打過,然后發現你現在的拖行反坦克炮已經夠用了),那么為什么還要自找麻煩一樣的把更大的主炮裝在現在已經不怎么夠的坦克底盤上?別忘了,你現在的‘九四式三十七粍速射砲’已經差不多可以搞定你行進路徑上幾乎所有的東西了,包括東南亞那些還在用通用運載車,蘭切斯特裝甲車,卡登·洛伊德小坦克以及斯圖爾特的西方世界力量。你的工業產能在大規模陸地戰爭的情況下已經幾乎達到了臨界點,那么你為什么還要去搞這個TD呢?

        

        Obviously, when you realize that perhaps one or two of those enemies might be bringing something more protected.

        那就是在你發現你的一個或者兩個敵人把一些防護更好的東西帶進戰場上的時候。

        Contrary to what many think today, Japan did learn quite a few lessons in the clashes with the Soviet Union. These were consolidated into Nomonhan Research Report, a classified candid document not meant for public consumption, but intended for the use of staff officers who would be charged with implementing the recommendations. Of course, most of the suggestions were ultimately not implemented as it should have been, due to the core lack of industrial capacity Japan was facing during its entire time as an empire. Regardlessly, the document did have great influence over Japanese armor development, and would be the background for the making of the Japanese tank destroyer force.

        與我們今天所想的相反,日本在與蘇聯的沖突中的確好好的給自己上了幾課。這些內容被整合在了諾門罕研究報告中,這是一份機密的盜攝報告,本不應該向公眾發布的,僅限于那些管理各種建議的官員使用。當然了,絕大部分的建議由于日本在戰時所要面對的工業能力不足的原因在最后都沒有得到采納。但是沒有人發現這份文檔對于日本裝甲開發有著極大的影響,也會作為日本TD的背景文件。

        

        Perhaps the silent complaint noted in the report was the lack of sufficient anti-tank weapons, be it the towed guns or tanks. In fact, one part noted that the troops would be annihilated without such weapons in case of a future attack, and endorsed research to design a more powerful anti-tank gun that would be necessary to defeat heavier armor likely to appear in the future. This lead directly to the development of the 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun Type 1 and its adaptation for use in Type 97 Chi-Ha Kai.

        也許在報告中提到的無聲的抱怨就是缺少有效的反坦克武器,就像現在的拖拽反坦克炮或者坦克不夠用一樣。事實上,報告的一部分提到說如果未來在沒有這種武器的情況下進攻的話會造成部隊的全滅,并且他們認為設計一種更強大的反坦克炮是必要的,以對抗未來有可能會出現的重裝甲的敵人。這直接就導致了’一式機動四十七粍速射砲’的開發,對其進行調整后,把它安裝在了‘九七式中戦車 チハ改’上。

        The findings in the Nomonhan Research Report also endorsed the concept of making the anti-tank weapon the nucleus of the infantry formation, along with with suggestions for the need for a self-propelled gun as part of a comprehensive renovation of artillery. While ultimately the organic artillery of Japanese infantry divisions became so bewildering as to defy the notion of standardization, self-propelled guns did begin to appear in Japanese units. The first one, born from the fire of the Mongolian plain, was Type 1 Ho-Ni I.

        諾門罕報告中的同時提出了要把反坦克武器作為步兵陣的核心的概念,他們還建議要制造一種自走炮以作為火炮的替代計劃的一部分。鑒于日本步兵師的火炮組織過于混亂,自走炮的確開始出現在各種日本的單位中。第一門在蒙古平原上在戰火中誕生的自走炮,就是這個’一式砲戦車 ホニ I’

        

        

        Type 1 Ho-Ni I was developed by using the existing Chi-Ha chassis and engine, and replacing the gun turret with an open casemate with frontal and side armor only, while applying extra armor to the front hull. Basically, it followed the Panzerjäger idea, sticking a larger gun onto an existing tank chassis. In line with the need for both a good anti-tank weapon and self-propelled gun, Ho-Ni I was designed to operate as self-propelled artillery in the armored divisions while being armed with a relatively high-velocity gun for anti-tank purposes.

        ‘一式砲戦車 ホニ I’是使用了現有的’九七式中戦車 チハ’的底盤以及引擎進行開發的,他們把原來的炮塔用一個敞篷且只有正面和側面裝甲的炮塔換掉了,同時又給正面車身加裝了額外的裝甲板。它的理念和德國的Pz.Jg的概念差不多,把一桿更大的炮裝在現有的底盤上。在日軍對于好的反坦克武器和一個自走炮的雙重需求下,‘一式砲戦車 ホニ I’被設計成了可以在裝甲師中作為火炮進行操作,同時還有一桿初速很高的主炮用于反坦克用途。

        One might ask why it took almost two year (development started in December 1939 and acceptance was in October 1941) for such a simple vehicle to come out. As it turns out, clashes about the purpose of this “gun-tank (housensha)” was the main reason for the delayed development. At least there was the simple lack of any suitable anti-tank gun until 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun Type 1 came along. Aside from this, there was the disagreement on whether this gun-tank should be purposed for anti-tank or artillery purposes. The anti-tank/artillery argument was only settled after the decision to make a separate self-propelled gun armed with a 10.5 cm howitzer (Ho-Ni II) for pure artillery purposes, with Ho-Ni I providing both long-range direct fire and anti-tank capabilities with a modified 75 mm Field Gun Type 90.

        有人也許會問了,為什么他們用了兩年(1939年12月開始研發,1941年10月驗收)才研究出這么個小破車。其實是這樣的,關于這輛“炮坦克(日文為:砲戦車——譯注)” 的開發的沖突是導致開發延遲的主要原因。至少他們在’一式機動四十七粍速射砲’出現前都缺少可用的反坦克炮。除此以外,還有關于這輛坦克究竟是要用于反坦克用途還是用于火炮用途的不一致意見。反坦克/火炮的爭論在他們決定要另搞一輛用10.5cm榴彈炮的單純的火炮(一式砲戦車 ホニ II)之后終于塵埃落定,而‘一式砲戦車 ホニ I’在裝備改裝后的九〇式野砲后可以提供遠距離直接射擊和反坦克的能力。

        Ho-Ni I served mostly with the 2nd Armored Division in the Philippines, where while it did not have a big impact on the battlefield, was still able to do its job sufficiently for such an outdated design. It was one of the few vehicles that could defeat a Sherman, with the veterans of the Japanese-Soviet conflicts carrying out camouflage and ambushes, managing to destroy M4 tanks from around 500 meters away. In the end, all Ho-Ni Is were destroyed, with only one example surviving in the United States.

        大部分的‘一式砲戦車 ホニ I’都服役在菲律賓的第二裝甲師中,雖說它對戰場沒有產生什么太大的影響,但是它在使用這樣一種過時的設計下還是能做好自己的本職工作的。這是少數幾輛可以搞定一輛M4坦克的車。部分在日蘇沖突中剩下的老兵可以在利用迷彩和伏擊戰術的情況下,在500開外就能摧毀M4坦克。最后,所有的‘一式砲戦車 ホニ I’都被摧毀了,只有一輛樣車還留在美國的某處。

        

        For the Imperial Japanese Army, however, Ho-Ni I was not enough. In order to solve the issues of crew survivability, a fully enclosed and armored casemate was made for the upgrade, Ho-Ni III, in 1943. In addition to this, with the case mate having its flanks protruding beyond the hull sides, it provided more room for the crew and the possibility of upgunning, although such upgunning never happened due to lack of resources. Also, the gun was changed to 7.5 cm Tank Gun Type 3 Model II, a modified version of 7.5 cm Field Gun Type 90 for use in gun carriers. The breech was shorted by 300 mm to allow greater traverse (22° to each side) and elevation (-15°/+25°).

        對于IJA來說,‘一式砲戦車 ホニ I’是遠遠不夠的。為了解決乘員生存率的問題,在1943年他們搞出了一種全封閉且有裝甲防護戰斗室的版本,‘一式砲戦車 ホニ III’。除此以外,它的外殼的兩翼向車身后方突出,給乘員提供了更大的空間以及未來對主炮的升級,但是鑒于資源不足,主炮一直未能得到升級。與此同時,主炮也被換成了用于武器運載車的‘九〇式野砲’的改裝版,‘三式七糎半戦車砲II型’。它的后膛被削短了300mm以提供更大的射界(每側22°)以及仰/俯角(-15°/+25°)

        

        Unfortunately, unlike Ho-Ni I, Ho-Ni III was kept on the Home Islands for the “Decisive Battle” against the Allied invasion, thus never being used in actual combat.

        不幸的是, 與‘一式砲戦車 ホニ I’不同,‘一式砲戦車 ホニ III’一直都被留在了日本本土以應對盟軍入侵的“決定性戰斗”,因此就從來沒有進入過實戰。

        This was just the beginning of Japanese tank destroyer development. While the beginnings were humble, the start of the Pacific War meant that Japan needed more powerful vehicles, and thus began rapid improvements…..

        這只是日本TD研發的開始階段。盡管起步好像有點問題,但是由于太平洋戰場的開拓就意味著日本需要更強大的車輛,于是他們就開始了快速的進步……

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