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      從未收到的貨物 日本虎式的歷史背景

      已跟帖 2015-07-22 作者:未知 來源:網絡

        In terms of the art of war, Japan was developing as an island country: the navy and aviation were of the highest priority. The army was not really weak, but in terms of military equipment, it was definitely inferior to their European counterparts, who were used to conducting warfare on solid ground.

        就戰略層面來看,日本是以一個島國的身份發展起來的,海軍和空中力量是最緊要的。他們的陸軍其實并不弱,但就裝備來看,肯定弱于歐洲國家。而軍事裝備為戰爭走向奠定了一個堅實的基礎。

        This was evident by just looking at Japanese armoured vehicles. Even the most advanced mass-produced Japanese tank—the Type 97 ShinHoTo Chi-Ha—was weak when compared with the Soviet T-34, the German Pz.Kpfw IV or the US Sherman. Heavy tanks were not used by the Japanese Army at all.

        日本的裝甲車輛就是一個明顯的例證。即使他們最先進的量產坦克,即九七式中戰車新炮塔型(譯注:裝一式47mm炮的那種型號),也要弱于蘇聯的T-34、德國的四號坦克和美國的謝爾曼坦克。而日本陸軍根本就沒有重型坦克。

        The Empire is in Danger

        危機中的帝國

        The poor quality of Japanese tanks was not the result of erroneous actions of the military leaders. The main theatre of war for Japan was the Pacific islands. All vehicles and supplementary equipment had to be transported by sea, which necessitated the restriction of their weights. The island terrain was not suitable for using heavy vehicles either. The armament of China, the only major mainland rival of Japan, was of very poor quality, and the combat capabilities of Japanese vehicles in comparison to the Chinese Army were more than enough.

        日本坦克低劣的質量并不是軍方高層錯誤的決策造成的。日本的主要作戰地域是太平洋上的島嶼,所有的車輛及輔助設備都必須通過海運才能到達那里,所以必須限制重量。而海島上的地形也不適合于重型車輛。日本在大陸上唯一的對手只有中國軍隊,他們的質量非常差,面對中國陸軍,日本戰車的作戰能力綽綽有余。

        A German propaganda picture showing Japanese officers manning a Tiger tank. Photo from the book, Germany’s Tiger Tanks, by T. Jentz and H. Doyle

        一張德國的宣傳照,虎式坦克上的日本軍官。照片來自T. Jentz和H. Doyle的《德國的虎式坦克》一書。

        On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the USA. Those events started the triumphant march of the Imperial Japanese Army over the Pacific islands. The Japanese invaded the Philippines, multiple islands of Oceania, and parts of New Guinea. To remedy the situation, the allied forces had to invest a lot of time and effort if they ever wanted to push back.

        1941年12月7日,日本偷襲珍珠港,此后日本陸軍在太平洋的海島上所向披靡。日本占領了菲律賓、大洋洲的多個島嶼,新幾內亞的一部分。為了挽救不利的局勢,盟軍花了很長時間,做出了很大的努力,以試圖進行反擊。

        During their domination in the Pacific region, the Japanese created a defensive perimeter, where the islands played the role of strongholds. Afterwards, the Americans started to fight back. In June 1942, the Japanese lost four aircraft carriers during the Battle of Midway. The Battle of Guadalcanal, which lasted six months and ended in February of 1943 with the US forces being victorious, deprived Japan of the strategic initiative. Their defensive perimeter began falling apart under the attacks and Americans started approaching Japan one island at a time.

        日本人在稱霸太平洋的那段時間內,構建了一條防線,把這條防線上的各個海島建成了要塞。此后,美國人開始反攻。1942年6月,在中途島海戰中,日本人損失了四艘航空母艦。持續六個月的瓜達卡納爾島戰役在1943年2月結束,美軍獲勝,日本失去了戰略主動權。在美軍的攻擊下,他們的防線支離玻碎。美軍一個島嶼一個腳印,向日本本土進軍。

        This led the Japanese military leaders to think about the threat of the US invasion. To withstand US attacks, the Japanese needed heavy tanks, and their projects were merely in the design stage and were never embodied in metal. Their German allies, however, boasted a new powerful tank— the Pz.Kpfw. VI Tiger.

        這一切使得日本軍方高層開始思考美軍的威脅。為了應對美國的進攻,日本需要重型坦克,但他們自己的項目還在設計階段,沒有造出來。而他們的德國盟友正在為自己強大的新式坦克而自豪,那就是虎式坦克。

        Cargo with no Perspective

        從未收到的貨物

        Japanese submarine aircraft carrier of project I-400. The plan was to use this ship to transport the Tiger across the ocean.

        日本的伊-400型潛水航母。計劃用這種潛艇將虎式坦克運到日本。

        Germany responded to the plea of their Axis allies. Hiroshi Oshima, the Japanese ambassador, was taken to the Kummersdorf facility and shown the production of Tigers at the Henschel plants - generally speaking, the ambassador got closely acquainted with the product. He became thrilled with the idea and entered into negotiations with the German Ministry of Armaments.

        德國人對于他們盟友的請求作出了回應。他們讓日本駐德國大使大島浩參觀了位于庫莫爾斯多夫的設施,并向他展示了亨舍爾工廠的虎式生產線。總之,日本大使得以在近距離觀察了虎式生產線。購買虎式坦克的想法讓他激動萬分,開始和德國裝備部進行談判。

        In 1943, the Japanese received two packages of technical documentation. A point of purchasing the tanks has been raised as the cost of a Tiger was around 300,000 Reichsmarks in comparable prices of 1943 but the Ministry of Armaments and Henschel requested 645,000 Reichsmarks. The price was sky-high, but it doesn’t mean that the Germans just decided to cash in on their oversea allies. First, the tank would be supplied with ammunition, radio and optics. [河蟹], the Germans were ready to disassemble and pack the tank before shipping it to Japan. Plus, it seems that the cost of technical documentation was also included into the price.

        1943年,日本接收了兩包技術文檔。根據1943年的價格,一輛虎式坦克的造價大概是300000帝國馬克,不過在購買時有所上漲,但德國裝備部和亨舍爾的報價是645000帝國馬克。這是個天價,但這并不意味著德國人想在他們的海外盟友身上狠賺一筆。首先,這輛坦克裝備有武器、電臺和光學設備。其次,在運往日本之前,德國人還需要將坦克拆解打包。另外,這個價格還包含有技術文檔的費用。

        What was the point of disassembling? The deal itself did not present any difficulties, but the shipping did. The option with surface ships was disregarded, as the Allies commanded the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic. Underwater shipping became the only alternative - however, that alternative was less than stellar, as there were not many vessels that could bear a huge 30-ton hull. Submarine aircraft carriers that had corresponding characteristics were not finished, and the Tiger had many chances to hit a snag on its way to Japan. Based on the most optimistic of estimates, the buyer could count on delivery by December 1944.

        那么又是何時拆解的呢?交易本身沒有難度,但如何運輸卻成了問題。因為盟軍已控制了地中海和大西洋,使用水面艦船運輸的方案直接給無視了。水下運輸成了唯一的方案。但是,這個方案也不怎么樣。因為沒有什么潛艇能運輸一個巨大的30噸車體。具有這種能力的潛水航母尚未完工,而且在運往日本的途中,還有可能遭遇各種意外。即使是最樂觀的估計,買家也要等到1944年12月才能拿到貨。

        Nevertheless, the tank was sent to the Bordeaux port. In February 1944, the Japanese paid for the order and officially came into possession of the Tiger, but it still remained a dead weight hung in the air. In the summer of 1944, the Allies landed in Normandy and put Germany on the spot.

        但不管怎么說,這輛坦克還是被運到波爾多港。1944年2月,日本人支付了貨款,正式擁有了這輛坦克,但這只不過是水中月鏡中花而已。因為在1944年夏季,盟軍在諾曼底登陸,把德國逼到了懸崖上。

        Following the Decision of the Supreme High Command of the German Army dated to 21 September 1944, the Japanese Tiger was leased (or requisitioned, according to other sources) and passed to the field forces. That is how it was lost somewhere on the Western Front.

        根據1944年9月21日德國陸軍最高統帥部的決定,租用(有些資料說是征用)了日本人的虎式坦克,交給了野戰部隊。最后損失在西線戰場上。


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